Carnelian is a semiprecious stone consisting of an orange or orange-red variety of chalcedony. The stone gets its colors due to impurities of iron oxide.
Carnelian was used as beads as early as the Early Neolithic in Bulgaria. Carnelian beads are described from the Varna Chalcolithic necropolis (middle of the 5th millennium BC). Carnelian was used widely during Roman times to make engraved gems for signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or other important documents — as hot was does not stick to Carnelian.